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LINCOLN ROOM 




UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 
LIBRARY 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 



http://www.archive.org/details/lincolnspringfieOOsons 




Lincoln and Springfield 




PHILLIPS BROS. PRINT, SPRINGFIELD. ILL. 




To the Fortieth Annual Congress of the Sons of the 
American Revolution Springfield, Illinois 

This pamphlet, "Lincoln and Springfield," is issued by the 
General Committee of Arrangements of the Fortieth Congress in 
the hope that it will prove a pleasing souvenir of your visit to 
the home of Lincoln. 

Acknowledgment is made to The Abraham Lincoln Asso- 
ciation, its president, Hon. Logan Hay and its secretary, Paul 
M. Angle, William Dodd Chenery, Clarence Bennett, John E. 
Vaughn, Archie Bowen, the Springfield Chamber of Commerce 
and others for their assistance and permission to use the 
matter contained therein. 

General Committee : 

John M. Tipton 
Lewis K. Torbet 
John W. Black 
Edward W. Payne 
R. C. Schanck 



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LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 



Lincoln' s Farewell Address 

"MY FRIENDS, NO ONE NOT IN MY SITUA- 
TION, CAN APPRECIATE MY FEELING OF SAD- 
NESS AT THIS PARTING. TO THIS PLACE, AND 
THE KINDNESS OF THESE PEOPLE, I OWE 
EVERYTHING. HERE I HAVE LIVED A QUAR- 
TER OF A CENTURY, AND HAVE PASSED FROM 
A YOUNG TO AN OLD MAN. HERE MY CHILD- 
REN HAVE BEEN BORN, AND ONE IS BURIED. 
I NOW LEAVE, NOT KNOWING WHEN OR 
WHETHER EVER I MAY RETURN, WITH A TASK 
BEFORE ME GREATER THAN THAT WHICH 
RESTED UPON WASHINGTON. WITHOUT THE 
ASSISTANCE OF THAT DEVINE BEING, WHO 
EVER ATTENDED HIM I CANNOT SUCCEED. 
WITH THAT ASSISTANCE I CANNOT FAIL. 
TRUSTING IN HIM, WHO CAN GO WITH ME AND 
REMAIN WITH YOU, AND BE EVERYWHERE 
FOR GOOD, LET US CONFIDENTLY HOPE THAT 
ALL WILL YET BE WELL. TO HIS CARE COM- 
MENDING YOU, AS I HOPE IN YOUR PRAYERS 
YOU WILL COMMEND ME, I BID YOU AN AF- 
FECTIONATE FAREWELL." 



NOTE — Spoken from the rear platform of the Special 
Train over the Great Western, now Wabash Railroad, Feb- 
ruary 11, 1861, just before his departure for Washington 
for his inauguration. The old passenger station (now the 
Wabash freight office) now stands at Tenth and Monroe 
Streets. It was raining and sleeting and only a small 
group of people heard his immortal farwell. Newton Bate- 
man, Superintendent of Public Instruction, took the speech 
in short-hand and preserved it for posterity. The spot is 
marked by a marker placed by the Daughters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution. 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 





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LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 



Fore-word 

It is hard to imagine a more difficult task than to write a 
preface to the records of the intimate life and surroundings of 
one who, by the colossal greatness of his character — his humble 
modesty and true nobility of soul — his mighty service to his 
Country and to humanity, has written his own eulogium high up 
on the architraves of the World's Temple of Fame — not with the 
blood of conquered thousands nor the splendor of imperial power, 
but in that universal language of great deeds, noble thoughts and 
unselfish devotion to the highest duty, giving the glory to God, 
the Almighty Pilot of the destinies of nations. 

Such a task faces me now, as, standing on the hallowed" spots 
where the feet of Lincoln have so often trodden, the scenes with 
which he was so familiar and amid which he daily passed, I recall 
in imagination — not the great Emancipator, whose name is a 
house-hold word in every civilized nation on the Globe — but the 
modest, noble and gentle "Abe" Lincoln, the kindly neighbor, the 
much-loved friend of all his fellow townsmen. 

Here are the spots he made sacred with his presence and his 
intimate daily contact and association ; here the old home, around 
which clustered and clung the tenderest memories of family and 
loved ones ; here that splendid tomb where a grateful people have 
reverently enshrined his martyred remains. 

Hither with reverent devotion, bend the pilgrim steps of the 
great, the good, the wise of every land and clime — Kings, Poets, 
Philosophers, Statesmen, Soldiers, all, to lay their wreaths upon 
the marble coffin of the great patriot-martyr, who fulfilled his 
holy mission and sealed the Supreme Sacrifice with his blood, in 
order that "Government of the people, for the people and by the 
people should not perish from the earth!" 

Clarence Bennett. 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 



ABRAHAM LINCOLN WALKS AT MIDNIGHT 



It is portentous and a thing of state 
That here at midnight, in our little town 
A mouring figure walks and will not rest 
Near the old court-house pacing up and down. 

Or by his homestead, or in shadowed yards 
He lingers where his children used to play, 
Or through the market, on the well-worn stones 
He stalks until the dawn-stars burn away. 

It breaks his heart that Kings must murder still ; 
That all his hours of travail here for men 
Seem yet in vain. And who will bring white peace, 
That he, may sleep upon his hill again? 

— Vachal Lindsay. 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 



Abraham Lincoln and Springfield 

A. L. Bowen 

In Springfield, Illinois, Abraham Lincoln's spirit lives. 
The modest home in which he lived still stands, now the prop- 
erty of the State of Illinois. The old state capitol, in which he 
made many of his greatest political addresses and in which his 
body laid in state before burial, remains standing. Bronze 
tablets throughout the city mark the sites of his law offices, the 
courts in which he practiced, the haunts he frequented. In 
imagination one can still see him, tall, gaunt, and with shuf- 
fling step, treading his familiar paths. And in Oak Ridge Ceme- 
tery towers his monument, dear beyond all other shrines 
to the many thousands who visit it annually. 

On April 15th, 1837, Abraham Lincoln, a young man newly 
admitted to the bar, took up his residence in Springfield. For 
nearly a quarter of a century he was to claim it as his home. 
As a Springfield citizen he rose to leadership in his profession, 
gained a prominent position as a Whig politician and became 
the first Republican president of the United States. And as he 
prospered, so this city gained a place in his affections. On that 
February day, in 1861, when he departed for Washington, D. 
C, to assume the duties as Chief Executive, he said in his fare- 
well speech : ''No one, not in my situation, can appreciate my 
feeling of sadness at this parting. To this place, and the kind- 
ness of these people, I owe everything. Here I have lived a 
quarter of a century, and have passed from a young to an old 
man. Here my children have been born, and one is buried. I 
now leave, not knowing when or whether ever I may return." 

Stephen A. Wise, the eloquent Jewish rabbi, addressing the 
Lincoln Centennial Association at Springfield, Illinois, on a 
birthday celebration of Abraham Lincoln closed with these 
words, "Surely there will be no dissenting from my thought 
that the two chief est and holiest shrines of America are to be 
found on the banks of the Potomac and within this city of 
Illinois. His tomb at Springfield is no more sacred than the 
grave at Mt. Vernon, each a hallowed altar of humanity." 

General John McAuley Palmer, of the U. S. Army, once made 
the statement at a Historical Society meeting in Lincoln's 
home city, "As I come back occasionally to the home of my 
boyhood, I recognize a gradually growing sanctity in the atmos- 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 



phere of this town. This may not be so apparent to my old 
friends who have always lived here. This sanctity grows with 
the ever growing fame of Abraham Lincoln. We have lived 
to see a time in Springfield, as Sangamon is beginning to stand 
with Stratford-on-Avon, as a shrine to the supreme genius of 
the English speaking people." 

Eapidly the world is acknowledging by its homage the truth 
of the sentiment these two men expressed. Year by year the 
pilgrimage to Lincoln's home increases in volume until now 
more than 150,000 sign their names annually upon the register 
at his tomb ; his natal day is recognized all through Christen- 
dom, the number of biographical works and analyses of his 
character grows rapidly. English literature is enriched an- 
nually by outstanding books inspired by the Lincoln spirit. 
At the home and tomb of Lincoln the Sons of the American 
Revolution will hold their annual convention May 19-23. A 
brief description of this interesting Illinois prairie city and 
especially association and heritages is appropriate at this time. 

At Springfield, too, U. S. Grant after applying to the War 
Department in vain for assignment at the beginning of the 
Civil War, begged to be given a place with Illinois troops then 
mobilizing for the front. Governor Yates, the war governor, 
gave him a clerkship — politicians poked fun at him, an im- 
pecunious soldier. Finally he was made colonel of an almost 
mutinous regiment and the remainder is history. 

John Hay when a stripling came from Pike county, as a 
stenographer to Springfield hunting a job. Attracting the at- 
tention of Mr. Lincoln he hired him as his secretary and the 
remainder is history. 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 



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Illinois State Capitol. 



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LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 




LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 11 



Abraham Lincoln, 1809-1865 

THE ABRAHAM LINCOLN ASSOCIATION. 

I WAS born," wrote Lincoln in an autobiographical 
sketch, "February 12, 1809, In Hardin County, Ken- 
tucky. My parents were both born in Virginia, of 
undistinguished families — second families, perhaps I 
should say." The father was Thomas Lincoln, a not 
too industrious pioneer carpenter, who never succeeded in 
obtaining more than enough income to keep away actual want, 
while the mother was Nancy Hanks, a gentle, mystical soul 
completely out of place in the rough frontier environment. 

In 181 G Thomas Lincoln with his family removed from Ken- 
tucky to Pigeon Creek (near Gentryville) in Spencer County, 
Indiana. "It was a wild region, with many bears and other 
wild animals still in the woods. There I grew up. There were 
some schools, so-called, but no qualification was ever required 
of a teacher beyond 'reading writin' and cipherin' to the rule 
of three. If a straggler supposed to understand Latin happened 
to sojourn in the neighborhood, he was looked upon as a wizard. 
There was absolutely nothing to excite ambition for education. 
Of course, when I came of age I did not know much. Still, 
somehow, I could read, write, and cipher to the rule of three, 
but that was all." This attainment was due in part at least to 
the efforts of his step-mother. Nancy Lincoln had died when 
the boy was ten years old, but her place had soon been taken 
by Sarah Bush Johnston, whom Thomas Lincoln, while on a 
visit to Kentucky, had married. She was a strong-willed 
woman who gave Abraham much encouragement, and to whom 
he became greatly attached. 

When Lincoln was twenty-one his father again moved, this 
time to Macon County (near Decatur), Illinois. From there, 
after helping clear a piece of ground for the family, Abraham 
struck out for himself. Following a trip as boatman to New 
Orleans — the second he had made — he established himself at 
New Salem, at that time in Sangamon County. He engaged 
in several occupations — store-keeper, which failed, and left 
him loaded with debts, postmaster, surveyor and finally, legis- 
lator. During the Black Hawk War (1832) he served as a cap- 
tain of volunteers. He afterward spoke of his election to this 
position as "a success which gave me more pleasure than any 
1 have had since." 



LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



12 LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 

Lincoln was a candidate for the Illinois legislature in 1832 
but was defeated — the only defeat he ever received in a popu- 
lar election. Two years later he was successful, and served four 
successive terms as a member from Sangamon. He was one of 
the famous "Long Nine" in the session of 1836-1837, who, by 
dint of strenuous and skillful log-rolling, succeeded in getting 
through the removal of the state capitol from Vandalia to 
Springfield. It was during this "legislative period," as he 
called it, that he commenced seriously to study law. In 1837 
he was admitted to the bar, and soon after took up his residence 
in Springfield, where he lived until his departure for "Washing- 
ton in 1861. 

In 1846 Lincoln went to Washington as a representative 
from the Sangamon District of Illinois. There he served one 
term, not being a candidate for re-election. Disappointed with 
his experience, he returned to Springfield and threw himself 
whole-heartedly into the study of the law, and soon attained a 
leading position in his profession. 

"I was losing interest in politics when the repeal of the 
Missouri compromise aroused me again." Lincoln was not 
an abolitionist. He recognized the constitutional difficulty of 
interfering with slavery in the then slave states, but he was 
determined that its future spread, especially in the territories, 
should be prevented. When the substitution of Douglas' 
"popular sovereignity" for the Missouri compromise seemed to 
assure the extension of slavery Lincoln immediately threw his 
whole energy into public life. In 1854 a senator was to be 
elected by the Illinois legislature. Lincoln became a candidate. 
When it became evident that he could not be elected he threw 
his support to Lyman Trumbull, who, though a democrat, was 
a strong anti-slavery man, thus at his own expense securing 
the latter 's election. 

But four years later (1858) another senator was to be 
elected, and this time the contest lay between Lincoln and 
Douglas. It was then that the famous series of debates was 
arranged, the contestants dividing time and speaking in seven 
cities : Ottawa, Freeport, Jonesboro, Charleston, Galesburg, 
Quincy and x\lton. Douglas won the senatorship, but Lincoln 
was the ultimate victor. The debates had not only been at- 
tended by thousands ; they had received unprecendented publi- 
city the nation over. The result was to make Abraham Lincoln 
the outstanding public man in Illinois, and to gain him recog- 
nition as one of the foremost opponents of slavery extension 
in the United States. 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 



13 




14 LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 



In the slimmer of 1860 the Republican Convention met at 
the Wigwam in Chicago. At the head of the list of candidates 
stood William H. Seward of New York, but it soon became 
evident that his many determined enemies would successfully 
prevent his nomination. On the second ballot the delegates 
began to swing to Lincoln and, on the third, in a tremendous 
storm of ethnsiasm, he was nominated. In the following months 
the Democratic party split so seriously that Lincoln's election 
was practically assured. 

The story of the secession of the southern states, civil war, 
Lincoln's anxious years at AVashington, his re-election, his 
tragic death — all are too well known to need repetition here. 
His assination threw the entire country into sincere grief, and 
a gigantic crowd thronged to Springfield on the day of his 
funeral. For a day and a night his body lay in state in the 
chamber of the House of Representatives in the state house — 
the same room where almost seven years before he had voiced 
that famous phrophecy, "A house divided against itself cannot 
stand." On the 4th of May his remains were placed in the 
public receiving valut at Oak Ridge Cemetery, where they 
remained until transferred to the temporary tomb and later 
to the National Lincoln Monument. 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 



15 



Years in Netv Salem 

THE ABRAHAM LINCOLN ASSOCIATION. 

In the spring' of 1831 Lincoln had made a flat-boat trip to 
New Orleans with one Denton Offutt. After their return 
Offutt decided to open a store in New Salem, and there, as 
his clerk, went Lincoln. He seems to have made a satisfactory 
store-keeper, although on occasions his native honesty was 
carried almost to the point of eccentricity. Once, after selling 
a woman a small bill of goods, he discovered that he had over- 
charged her six and one-quarter cents. The clerk could not 
rest until he had trudged several miles that evening to make the 
restitution. 

Before long Offutt 's business went to pieces. The Black 
Hawk War furnished Lincoln employment for a while and when 
that was over he and an idle, dissolute drifter named Berry 
decided to go into store-keeping on their own account. By 
virtue of a liberal distribution of promissory notes — and noth- 
ing else — they became the proprietors of the leading mercantile 
establishment in the village. But prosper it would not, To 
Berry the store was simpty an asylum for idleness, while 
Lincoln was far more apt to be found stretched under a tree 
with his copy of Blackstone than to be tending the business. 
Finally came failure, whereupon Berry disappeared, leaving 
Lincoln loaded with the debts of the establishment. Although 
it took him years to do it, in the end every cent was paid. 

Meanwhile, Lincoln had made a friendship of great value. 
Mentor Graham was the village schoolmaster. While working 
for Offutt, Lincoln had heard of a body of principles which 
went by the name of "grammar," and he thought that if he 
could get hold of the necessary machinery he could master 
them. Graham told him about an idle "Kirkham's Grammar" 
in the nieghborhood, and he tramped a dozen miles to get it. 
Before long he had thoroughly mastered the rules. But Gra- 
ham was soon to impart more utiltarian knowledge. After the 
store's failure Lincoln had been appointed postmaster — a posi- 




Rutledge Tavern, New Salem. 



16 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 




The Restored Village of New Salem. 

lion he coveted mainly because the lightness of the mail gave 
him a chance to read the papers before delivering them. But 
if the duties of his office were few, his pay was slender. When 
John Calhoun, the overworked surveyor of Sangamon County, 
offered him employment he set eagerly to work to learn sur- 
veying. Under Graham's teaching he studied tirelessly and at 
the end of six weeks he was competent to commence the work. 

Coming to New Salem penniless and unknown, before he 
left the village Lincoln had become its outstanding citizen. 
The apex of pioneer achievement was his — he was a member of 
the legislature. In 1832, after the failure of Offutt's business, 
he had announced himself a candidate in a circular ending 
thus characteristically, "But if the good people in their wisdom 
shall see fit to keep me in the background, I have been too 
familiar with disappointments to be very much chagrined." 
He was defeated, but the good people of New Salem had seen 
fit to give him two hundred and seventy-seven out of two hun- 
dred and ninety votes cast at that place. And thus, in defeat, 
was laid the foundation of his political success, for at the next 
election he not only was successful, but ranked second in votes 
among the four winning candidates. 

During several of his years in New Salem Lincoln lived 
in a little two-story log cabin, Rutledge 's Tavern. He was 
treated as one of them by James Rutledge and his large family. 
Gradually, almost insensibly, Lincoln fell in love with the young 
and graceful daughter Ann. Tradition preserves us charming 
pictures of the many happy hours they spent together. Some- 
times they would study, and once, in his clear readable hand, 
Lincoln wrote across the title page of the treasured Kirkham's 
Grammar, "Ann M. Rutledge is now learning grammar." 
When Lincoln had accumulated a little more money, and when 
Ann had spent a few more months in school, they were to be 
married. But it was not to be. The summer of 1935 claimed 
many fever victims, and one of these was Ann Rutledge. 
Lincoln was profoundly affected by her death and struggled 
with a heavy grief which time alone was able to heal. 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 17 



The Springfield Lawyer 

THE ABRAHAM LINCOLN ASSOCIATION. 

While in Indiana Lincoln indicated a leaning toward the 
law, it is probable that he did not definitely begin to prepare 
himself for it until he became a resident of New Salem. There, 
on one of his days of unsuccessful storekeeping. he happened 
to buy a barrel of old household goods from a westward-bound 
pioneer. Sometime later he found at the bottom, under a heap 
of rubbish, a complete edition of Blackstone's Commentaries, 
"I began to read these famous works and I had plenty of time ; 
for during the long summer days when the farmers were busy 
with their crops, my customers were few and far between. 
The more I read, the more intensely interested I became. 
Never in my whole life was my mind so thoroughly absorbed. 
I read until I devoured them." 

During the Black Hawk War Lincoln had become ac- 
quainted with Ala j or John T. Stuart, then a prominent lawyer 
of Springfield. After the campaign he would frequently trudge 
from New Salem to Springfield to borrow or return Stuart's 
law books. And when Lincoln came to Springfield in 1837, 
Stuart immediately made him his partner. During the four 
years of their partnership Stuart was in Congress or canvassing 
a large part of the time. When, in his absence, Lincoln col- 
lected a fee, his partner's half was wrapped up, marked 
"Stuart's share," and laid away to await his return. 

From 1841 to 1844 Lincoln was the associate of one of the 
greatest lawyers Illinois has ever produced, Stephen T. Logan. 
Judge Logan had the ability to pick out young men of potential 
capacity and to develop them into outstanding attorneys. Lin- 
coln was no exception. To the young lawyer, who during 
Stuart's protracted absences had been none too industrious, 
the training he received from Logan was invaluable. 

After his connection with Logan, Lincoln opened an office 
of his own, and took as his partner young "Billy" Herndon. 
The association then begun ended only with Lincoln's death. 
"Give our clients to understand," Lincoln told Herndon on 
one of his last days in Springfield, "that the election of a pres- 
ident makes no change in the firm of Lincoln & Herndon." 
For over sixteen years they occupied together as an office the 
dingy back room of a store building on South Fifth street fac- 



18 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 




Desk on which Lincoln wrote his Inaugural address. Chairs used in 
his Law office and at home. 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 19 



ing the square. A frequenter of this office has described it : 
"In the center was a table, leaning against the wall was an old 
sofa or lounge, and on the opposite side of the room stood the 
bookcase. An old wood-burning stove and four or five chairs 
completed the outfit. The bookcase contained not to exceed 
twenty volumes and of this number scarcely half were law 
books, the others miscellaneous, partly literary and partly offi- 
cial, and statistical reports." Until Lincoln's death a little 
sign, "Lincoln & Herndon, Attorneys at Law," creaked on its 
rusty hinges at the foot of the stairway. 




20 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 




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LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 21 



The Resident and Neighbor 

THE ABRAHAM LINCOLN ASSOCIATION. 

Tradition has it that on the morning' of the fourth of 
November, 1842, Ninian W. Edwards made a hurried trip home 
to impart to his wife some startling- information: "I met Lin- 
coln awhile ago, and he told me that he and Mary were to be 
married tonight at the parsonage. I told him that this wouldn't 
do, that if Mary was to be married, it must be from my house.'' 

Mary Todd had come to Springfield from Kentucky some 
two or three years earlier, and had since been living at the 
home of Mr. Edwards, her sister's husband. Pretty, vivacious, 
intelligent — she was soon the center of a number of serious 
admirers. Among these were Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. 
Douglas. While at that time Douglas far outshone Lincoln in 
prominence, Lincoln won Miss Todd's promise. However, the 
engagement did not run smoothly. An estrangement occurred, 
and for months the couple saw nothing of each other. But in 
time a secret reconciliation was affected and the date of the 
marriage set for November fourth, 1842. Until that very day 
Miss Todd's family and friends were kept in ignorance. 

Mr. Edwards succeeded in having the marriage performed 
at his home instead of at the parsonage. His residence was a 
rambling old house, set back from the street in a large lot now 
occupied by the Centennial Building. Mrs. Edwards was fam- 
ous for her generous hospitality, but now she was confronted 
by a serious problem, for to prepare for a wedding on a few 
hours' notice was no small task for the housekeeper. In those 
days Springfield, a town of about two thousand, counted neither 
a confectioner nor a caterer among its merchants, and the lead- 
ing products of its two bakeries were "gingerbread and beer." 
However, friends and neighbors fell to, and when the guests 
arrived that night a bountiful old-time supper was ready for 
them. In the words of one who was present, "Mrs. Edwards, 
despite the hurry, had provided an elegant and bountiful sup- 
per, and the wedding itself was pretty, simple, and impres- 
sive. ?1 The Reverend Charles Dresser performed the ceremony, 
and about forty guests were present. 

A few days after his marriage Lincoln wrote his old friend 
Speed, "We are not keeping house, but boarding at the Globe 
Tavern, which is very Avell kept by a widow lady of the name 
of Beck. Our room and boarding only costs us four dollars a 
week." The Globe Tavern was located at what is now 315 East 



22 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 




Home of Abraham Lincoln. 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 



23 




24 LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 

Adams Street, and at that time was the best boarding house in 
town. There the Lincoln's lived for over a year, and there 
Robert Todd Lincoln, the first child, was born. 

On the morning of his wedding day Lincoln had sought out 
the Rev. Mr. Dresser at his own home, a frame house of a story 
and a half at the corner of Eighth and Jackson streets. Per- 
haps he was particularly impressed with it at that time ; at any 
rate sixteen months later he purchased it. Mr. Lincoln made 
up the purchase price of $1500 by a cash payment of $1200 and 
by the conveyance of his sole piece of property, a lot in the 
business part of the town. Some years later, to meet the needs 
of an increasing family, the Lincolns added a second story, but 
since then there have been no material changes, and externally 
the house stands at present practically the same as when in- 
habited by them. 

On May 2, 1844, Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln moved into their new 
home, and there, with the exception of a few days, they lived 
until their departure to Washington in 1861. In this house 
three more children were born to them, and from this house 
one of those children was buried. There, in 1860, Mr. Lincoln 
received the committee which officially notified him of his nom- 
ination as the candidate of the Republican party for the pres- 
idency. And there on February 6, 1861, took place the last 
social event of Abraham Lincoln's life in Springfield. "The 
first levee given by the President-elect took place last evening 
at his own residence in this city and it was a grand outpour- 
ing of citizens and strangers, together with the members of the 
legislature. Your humble servant was invited to attend. Mr. 
Lincoln threw open his house for a general reception of all the 
people who felt disposed to give him and his lady a parting 
call. The levee lasted from seven to twelve o'clock in the even- 
ing and the house was thronged by thousands up to the latest 
hour. Mr. Lincoln received the guests as they entered and 
were made known. They then passed on and were introduced 
to Mrs. Lincoln, who stood near the center of the parlor, and 
who, I must say, acquitted herself most gracefully and ad- 
mirably She is a lady of fine figure and accomplished 

address and is well calculated to grace and to do honor at the 
White House." Five days later the family left for Washing- 
ton. 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 



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LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 




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LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 27 



Lincoln and the Old State House 

THE ABRAHAM LINCOLN ASSOCIATION. 

On July 4, 1837, just about five months after the legislature 
had passed the bill removing the capital from Vandalia to 
Springfield, the cornerstone of the state house was laid. It was 
several years before the building was entirely finished, but it 
was partially occupied as early as 1840. When, forty years 
later, the expanding affairs of the state of Illinois demanded 
more room, Sangamon County took it over to be used as a court 
house. In time it became too small even for that purpose, and 
its fire hazards made repairs inevitable. In order to retain as 
nearly as possible the structure 's original appearance the coun- 
ty commissioners decided to raise the building and add a lower 
floor. This work, together with other modifications, was com- 
pleted in 1901. 

Yielding precedence only to the Lincoln home, the old state 
house is crowded with memories. There, for three months in 
the winter of 1840-1841, Lincoln served his last term as a mem- 
ber from Sangamon. There he delivered several of his greatest 
speeches. There, as president-elect, he received in the gover- 
nor's office the thousands of well-wishers that came to Spring- 
field. And there, before burial, his body lay in state. The deep 
blazes in the trail of Lincoln's career can be found in this old 
building. 

When used as a capitol building the Supreme Court chamber, 
where Lincoln tried many causes, was in the northeast corner. 
Adjoining it was the library where the lawyers studied their 
cases and prepared their briefs. Late in the day their industry 
was apt to diminish and from a place of study the library would 
be transformed to a lounging room and the evening given over 
to masculine conviviality. A jug of whiskey usually appeared 
and the champion story-tellers held forth. Of these the favorite 
was Lincoln, in spite of the fact that he left the jug untouched. 
His unique collection of stories was apparently inexhaustible. 
Long into the night these gatherings would continue, rarely, if 
Lincoln happened to be in good trim, ending before midnight. 

But the old chamber of the house of representatives is most 
replete with Lincoln memories. There, in 1854, his political 
rebirth took place. The Nebraska bill has aroused the country. 
On the clerk's platform in the old house chamber sits Stephen 
A. Douglas. Lincoln rises to speak. He compliments his dis- 
tinguished opponent ; if on account of his limited public ex- 
perience he should misstate any facts, he would be much obliged 
to the judge for correcting him. In his senatorial manner 



28 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 



Douglas answers that he will save anything he has to say until 
Mr. Lincoln has finished. But a sly prod of Lincoln's arouses 
him, and he thunders out, "No, sir! I will tell you what was 
the origin of the Nebraska bill. It was this, Sir ! God created 
man, and placed before him both good and evil, and left him 
free to choose for himself. That was the origin of the Nebraska 
bill." And then, with a smile, Lincoln demolishes him, "Well, 
then, I think it is a great honor to Judge Douglas that he was 
the first man to discover that fact. ' ' 

In this same room four years later Lincoln delivered perhaps 
his greatest speech. The state Republican convention was meet- 
ing in Springfield and Lincoln was opening his campaign 
against Douglas for the senatorship. Before speaking he had 
shown his address to many friends, most of whom pronounced 
it sheer political suicide. But Lincoln answered that "the time 
has come when these sentiments should be uttered and if it is 
decreed that I should go down because of this speech, then let 
me go down linked with the truth — let me die in the advocacy 
of what is just and right." 

Lincoln opened his address with, "If we could first know 
where we are, and whither we are tending, we could better 
judge what to do and how to do it." And then, an instant 
later, came the best-known prophecy in American history. "A 
house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this gov- 
erment cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I 
do not expect the Union to be dissolved — I do not expect the 
house to fall — but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It 
will become all one thing, or all the other." 




The Hall of the House of Representatives, as it Appeared in 
Lincoln's Time. 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 



29 




Old State House now Court House Remodeled. 



30 LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 



The President-Elect 

THE ABRAHAM LINCOLN ASSOCIATION. 

As the governor's room in the State House was not used for 
official business when the legislature was not in session, a few 
days after Lincoln's nomination he made that his office. There, 
for two hours in the morning and in the afternoon, he received 
and greeted visitors. Access to the office was absolutely free — 
no usher stood at the door ; anyone might knock and enter. The 
procession was almost endless, and came from every part of the 
country. The Springfield papers daily described notable or 
unusual visitors. One day they carried the following: "Mr. 
Lincoln was called upon today by an old man from Indiana 
named Jones for whom thirty years ago he worked as a common 
farmhand at a dollar a day." This was William Jones, who 
kept the store at Gentryville, and who later, as Colonel of the 
53rd Regiment of Indiana Volunteers, was killed at the siege of 
Atlanta. 

A week or so prior to his departure for Washington, Lin- 
coln changed his office from the State House to the second story 
of a building owned by Joel Johnson, opposite the Chenery 
House. There the interminable line of visitors continued. But 
for several hours a day Lincoln retired to a room in a building 
owned by his brother-in-law, C. M. Smith, and there prepared 
his first inaugural address. Having but few books at his home, 
he asked his law partner, Herndon, to procure for him certain 
volumes that he wished to consult while preparing the address. 
Herndon expected a long list of books and pamphlets, but Lin- 
coln asked for only four items: Jackson's proclamation against 
Nullification, Clay's speech on the Compromise of 1850, Web- 
ster's reply to Hayne, and a copy of the constitution. 

A few days before leaving for Washington, Lincoln and his 
family removed to the Chenery House, then the leading hotel 
of Springfield. On the morning of his departure he came down 
to the hotel office, and declining the proffered help of the at- 
tendants, roped his trunks with his own hands. Then, taking 
some of the hotel cards, he wrote on the backs this simple 
address : 

A. Lincoln 

White House 

Washington, D. C. 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 



31 




Above, tools used in trying to steal Lincoln's body. Saddle Bags and 
Surveying Instruments used by Mr. Lincoln. 



32 LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 



Lincoln and New Salem 

G. E. Nelson 

John M. Camron and James Rutledge were the settlers of 
the tract comprising the site of New Salem and contiguous 
lands, having settled there in 1828. They built the dam across 
the Sangamon River and erected a mill which consisted of a 
grist mill and also an up and down saw mill. Both Camron 
and Rutledge erected log cabins on the top of the bluff. In 
October, 1829, they had the town of New Salem surveyed and 
laid out, with John M. Camron as proprietor. 

At this time there were within trading proximity to New 
Salem the settlements of Clary's Grove to the west, Athens to 
the southeast ; Sugar Grove north of east, Indian Point be- 
tween New Salem and Sugar Grove, and Concord Creek to 
the north. 

By Christmas day there were enough residents in the New 
Salem territory for the establishment of a post office and 
Samuel Hill, a merchant of the town, was made postmaster. 

When Abraham Lincoln arrived at New Salem on Offut's 
flat boat in April, 1831, the town of New Salem was a full 
going municipality, sufficient unto itself. There were a num- 
ber of general stores, a mill, an inn, a shoe shop, a hat shop, 
a carding machine shop, a tan yard, a cooper shop, a blacksmith 
shop, a wagon wheel factory, and the town had a population 
of about one hundred inhabitants, representing about twenty- 
five families. 

Entrance from the town of New Salem to the mill was 
precipitous and the way up and down the hill was known as 
the "bridle path." The settlements to the east of the river 
used the mill and crossed the river by using a ford about two 
hundred feet below the dam. It might be stated here that 
one of the reasons advanced for the abandonment of the town 
was the difficulty of access from the north and east. There 
was the river to ford to reach the mill and the steep climb 
from the mill to the town. From the south, the grade was not 
so steep as the bridle path but was hard enough to climb in 
certain times of the year to deter what otherwise would have 
been customers, from trading at New Salem. From the west, 
the access was favorable, the land being level and hence the 
Clary's Grove boys were perhaps the best customers of the 
merchants of the town. 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 



33 




34 LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 



Lincoln's first work at New Salem was that of clerking in 
the Denton-Offut Store and assisting in the operation of the 
mill. Offut failed and Lincoln for a time was without a job. 
However, he found jobs as a day laborer and became a soldier 
(being captain of a company) in the Black Hawk War, was a 
candidate for the legislature (defeated the first time he ran 
but receiving practically the entire New Salem vote), and had 
a try at merchandising, having been a partner of William F. 
Berry. The firm of Berry and Lincoln monopolized the mercan- 
tile business of the town by buying out all competition. The 
firm failed and years later, Lincoln, out of his salary as con- 
gressman, paid the last installment of the indebtedness of the 
firm. He afterward frequently referred to it as the "national 
debt." 

Lincoln took up surveying and was deputy county surveyor 
of Sangamon County (Menard County was a part of Sanga- 
mon County until the year 1839) under John Calhoun, the 
county surveyor. Lincoln mastered surveying in six weeks, 
having been tutored by Mentor Graham, the village school 
master. It is said that during the six weeks in which he pur- 
sued the study of surveying, his appearance was that of a 
young man going into a physical decline, so closely did he apply 
himself to the task. After entering upon the job of deputy sur- 
veyor, he did much running of boundary lines for farmers 
and laid out and platted numerous towns, including Peters- 
burg. A creditor brought suit against him and his surveying 
instruments were sold on execution and levy. James Short, 
who had taken a fancy to the young surveyor, bought in the 
instruments at the sale, and restored them to Lincoln. 

Lincoln, regardless of his occupation, was at all times a stu- 
dent, and Graham, the village school master, together with the 
neighborhood philosopher, Jack Kelso, did much to enable him 
to get an education. Graham advised him that in order to 
become a man among men, he must use good English and in 
order to learn the English language, he could do no better 
than to borrow or buy a copy of Kirkham's Grammar and study 
it carefully. He borrowed a copy of this grammar and set to 
work to master it. Kelso suggested Shakespeare and Bacon 
and other works to broaden his outlook on life and to instill 
into his mind the poetry of life. Lincoln availed himself of the 
Onstott Cooper Shop in the west end of the town as a place 
in which to study. The Cooper Shop, as restored, consists of 
the original logs which constituted the shop at the time that 
Lincoln lived at New Salem, and there he was won't to lie 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 35 



on his stomach in front of the fireplace, with Bacon or Shake- 
speare or Blackstone in one hand while with the other hand 
he placed copper shaving on the coals to make a light by which 
to read. 

In this thriving town, during the six years that Lincoln lived 
there, no human activities current at the time were overlooked 
by the villagers. They had religious camp meetings, horse 
races, wrestling matches, cock fights, gander pullings, spelling 
bees, literary society meetings, and at times near riots. The 
inhabitants were, of coure, mostly pioneers who had made 
up their minds to rough it in a new country and while their 
outward appearances and their ways were not those of well 
dressed ballroom society folk, they were really honest and 
God-fearing and very charitable under the skin. Lincoln by 
throwing the champion wrestler, Jack Armstrong, became the 
athletic champion of the village, and by reason of his close 
application to books, he became one of its best educated men. 
He had determined to become a lawyer and some of the in- 
habitants of the village and surrounding country regarded him 
as being lazy because he read so much. One time when asked 
what good it might do him to read and study so much, he 
replied that possibly having an education "might come handy 
sometime." He applied himself to the study of the law in much 
the same manner as he pursued the study of sturveying. His 
health was almost wrecked beyond repair by the death of his 
sweetheart, Ann Rutledge, but after several weeks of the best 
of care for him by Bowling Green and his wife, he again took 
an interest in life and pursued his studies. In 1837 he moved 
to Springfield and entered upon the practice of his chosen 
profession. 

With Lincoln's leaving for Springfield, New Salem went into 
a quick decay. Most of the inhabitants moved their log cabins 
to Petersburg and it was not many years until no building 
was left in the village. Then for years, or until the year 1917, 
the site of New Salem was alternately corn field, wheat field, 
pasture, etc. On Lincoln's birthday in 1917, the Old Salem 
Lincoln League was organized with sixty-five members, the 
purpose of this organization being to fix sites at New Salem, 
gather relics of New Salem, and particularly those closely 
associated with Lincoln. The Old Salem Lincoln League gave a 
Fourth of July picnic at the site of New Salem, and published an 
invitation to all persons who knew anything of the village and 
its inhabitants to attend, and as a result thereof, many sites 
were definitely fixed although most of them were fairly well 



36 LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 

fixed by reference to Onstott's plat of the village and the public 
records. The League also made the place accessible by build- 
ing a road to the north (the one now in use as the north 
entrance). The Leagne also restored the log cabins which are 
at present to be seen in the village. 

In April, 1919, the legislature passed a bill taking over the 
site of New Salem and contiguous propert}^ as a gift to the 
State forever to be used as a public park and memorial to the 
early life of Abraham Lincoln. The deeds to the State of 
Illinois, made in pursuance of said bill, were from the Old 
Salem Chautauqua Association and Hon. William Randolph 
Hearst. Mr. Hearst, in 1906, while visiting in Petersburg, 
became very much interested in the sixty acres of land of 
which the site of New Salem is a part, and at the annual assem- 
bly of Old Salem Chautauqua, presented the chautauqua asso- 
ciation with a deed to the tract of land, with a reversionary 
clause in the deed. In 1919 at the request of the Old Salem 
Lincoln League, the Old Salem Chautauqua Association and 
Mr. Hearst each executed their respective deeds and placed 
the title in the State of Illinois. 

Since taking over the tract by the State of Illinois, the 
Department of Public Works and Buildings has erected the 
museum and has shaled the road and added several other im- 
provements to the park. The work of restoration of the remain- 
ing log cabins, we are informed by the Governor of Illinois will 
take place soon. 

The entire story of Lincoln at New Salem is very fully told 
and illustrated in a book entitled " Lincoln at New Salem," 
written for the Old Salem Lincoln League by Hon. Thomas 
P. Reep of Petersburg, Illinois. This book is cloth bound, 
appropriately illustrated and is for sale by the Old Salem 
Lincoln League as long as the copies last, at the price of $2.50. 
All of the net proceeds from the sale of this book go to the 
Old Salem Lincoln League, a corporation not-for-profit, to assist 
it in the job of furnishing the log cabins and stores with fur- 
niture, etc., of the style during the time that Lincoln lived in 
New Salem; the League having agreed with the State of 
Illinois to take over that part of the work of restoration. 
This book is copyrighted by the Old Salem Lincoln League and 
a limited number of copies have been printed. It is the one 
full and authentic story of Lincoln's six years at New Salem. 




^B^RCHT 190! BY GUY R MATHIS 



The National Lincoln Monument and Tomb. Open to the public, every 

day, where you will hear wonderful stories told of Mr. 

Lincoln and see many things of interest. 



38 LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 



The National Lincoln Tomb 

THE ABRAHAM LINCOLN ASSOCIATION. 

In Springfield, very soon after President Lincoln's death, a 
committee was organized to secure a suitable site for the tomb. 
A contract was made to purchase the land where the state 
house now stands, and the construction of a temporary receiv- 
ing vault, to be followed by a more imposing monument, was 
commenced. Due, however, to the objection of Mrs. Lincoln, 
the body never rested there. Oak Kidge Cemetery, then a new 
burial ground, was designated by her as the site for Mr. Lin- 
coln's tomb. His remains were placed in the public receiving 
vault May 4, 1865, a few months later to be removed to a tem- 
porary tomb, where they rested until transferred to the Na- 
tional Lincoln Monument in 1871. 

The Lincoln Monument was constructed under the direction 
of the Springfield Committee. The design adopted was that 
of Larkin G. Mead. Popular contribution supplied a large part 
of the funds. Thousands of organizations and individuals from 
all parts of the United States made their donations. A touch- 
ing tribute was the disproportionately large amount subscribed 
by the colored regiments which had served in the last years 
of the Civil War. 

In the beginning the Lincoln Tomb was a place of interest. 
A few thousands visited it annually. But the number grew 
larger and larger and from a place of interest it became a 
shrine. A shrine for America only? Sovereigns, ambassadors, 
visiting representatives of foreign nations — all have journeyed 
to Springfield to pay homage at Lincoln's grave. That thous- 
ands joined in raising an imposing pile of stone and bronze to 
the memory of Abraham Lincoln is indicative of the place he 
held in the regard of his contemporaries. That hundreds of 
thousands from all over the world now visit his tomb reveal his 
true position in history. 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 39 



Journalists Differed in Accounts of Wide-awake 
Lincoln Rally of 1860 

By John E. Vaughn 

Charles W. Kelley of Quincy reminds The State Journal 
that in reviewing memorable Springfield gatherings it has not 
yet told the story of the Wide- A wake Lincoln rally, Aug. 8, 1860. 
Mr. Kelley was one of the Lincoln Wide-Awakes, a participant 
in the demonstration and naturally enough is interested. The 
story is worth telling. 

Contemporary journalists of 1860 differed, with all the preju- 
dice and bias of rival political partisans, concerning the importance 
of that rally. The editor of The State Journal unhesitatingly 
pronounced it the turning point in the national campaign of that 
year, declaring it presaged the election of Abraham Lincoln to 
the presidency. The Register characterized it as a "fizzle." 

After writing until press time and filling columns of space 
for The Journal, its reported distressingly admitted his inability 
to do justice to the momentous gathering of Lincoln enthusiasts. 
His rival on the opposition paper gave the meeting short shrift. 
While The Journal estimated the crowd at no less than seventy- 
five thousand and asserted that it was the greatest political rally 
ever held in the west, the opposition conceded an attendance of 
onlv thirty thousand. Some correspondents estimated the crowd 
at 100,000. 

The Journal story pictures with all the adjectives at the com- 
mand of the writer, the rally as surpassing the memorable Indiana 
demonstration for "Tippecanoe and Tyler too." Its contemptuous 
opponent averred that the crowd was no larger than that of the 
Douglas meeting held in July. Moreover, it described the gath- 
ering as being divided in its sympathy between Lincoln and Doug- 
las. Every cheer for Lincoln, it said, was duplicated by a warmer 
cheer for Douglas. 

''The labors of Black Republicanism for a grand state dem- 
onstration at the home of Lincoln, culminated yesterday," bit- 
terly declared the opposition's leading editorial of August 9. "For 
the past month every Republican paper would urge the followers 
of Negro equality to go en masse to the home of Lincoln. It 
perhaps equalled, but did not surpass the demonstration of the 
Democracy." 



40 LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 

Charge $50,000 Spent 

In this vein the editorial continued. It declared that men 
were paid to swell the crowd. "The meeting," it said, ''has cost 
the Black Republican party not less than $50,000 in cash and they 
have not made a single vote by it." By way of backing up this 
assertion it was declared that medal and badge peddlers had sold 
fully half as many Douglas as Lincoln medals. 

The leading speakers at the Lincoln meeting were unmerci- 
fully ridiculed. Dignified Judge Trumbull was referred to as 
"Hackass" Trumbull. Eloquent Tom Cowan was characterized 
as a "Menard county ranter." It was intimated that Cowan was 
drafted for the occasion as a "ringer" for the distinguished Tom 
Corwin of Ohio, who had been advertised as one of the speakers. 
Corwin was not present. 

The State Journal story, while extravagantly penned, it more 
convincing as to reliability. It furnishes statistics and facts along 
with the flowers. These make it plain that the crowd surpassed 
anything ever before seen in this section of the country. The 
figures include the number of persons carried into Spring-field by 
the Great Western and the St. Louis, Alton & Chicago railroads, 
which made excursion rates for the day. They also detail the 
number in line from nearby towns which contributed Wide-Awake 
marching clubs, mounted men and women, floats and decorated 
vehicles of every description. 

One incident concerning the event on which the rival papers 
agree, supports the assertion that the crowd was unprecedented 
in Springfield. The day meeting was held at the fair grounds, 
where five speakers' stands had been erected. There were no 
amplifiers in 1860 and it was necessary to have four extra sets 
of speakers to accomodate the overflow. 

"Escapes" On Horse 

Lincoln was driven to the fair grounds, not to make a speech, 
but merely to view the great crowd. Enthusiastic supporters in- 
sisted on a speech. The crowd broke through the guard and 
hoisted him to one of the platforms. In the rush, the stand 
collapsed. To silence the tumult, Lincoln spoke a few words of 
greeting and then re-entered his carriage. The driver was unable 
to make his way through the great mass of people and it was not 
until Lincoln mounted a horse that he was able to escape from 
his friends and make his way home. The opposition press de- 
scribed Lincoln as having recourse to "the unpleasant alternative 
of backing a bob-tail nag." 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 41 

Lincoln reviewed the parading clubs from the front of his 
home and personally greeted such of the crowd as was able to 
reach him. It was practically an all day reception. 

The description of the day parade shows that it filled practi- 
cally all the streets in the little city. Many of the floats are given 
special mention. One wagon from Williamsville neighborhood 
was drawn by twenty-three oxen and was flanked with a company 
of mounted men in Indian costume, representing the Boston Tea 
Party. The woolen mills contributed a mounted loom and during 
the parade wove a bolt of cloth from which tailors cut and made 
a pair of pantaloons for Lincoln. 

Scores of neighboring towns and villages sent great wagons 
filled with young women representing the states of the Union. 
Goddesses of Liberty, women operating spinning wheels, men 
buildings log cabins and flat boats, and rail-splitters without num- 
ber were in the parade. One town sent a full-rigged schooner, 
mounted on wheels and flying Lincoln banners. At the head of 
the procession the Wide- A wakes rolled an immense ball to typify 
the rolling up of the Lincoln and Hamlin majority. 

Marchers Carry Banners 

Springfield had imported enough bunting to swath the entire 
town in bandages of red, white and blue. The marchers carried 
thousands of flags and banners bearing inspections of hope for 
the success of "Lincoln, the rail splitter," and defies to the anti- 
Lincoln men. These were acclaimed by the Republicans along the 
line of march and derided by the Douglas supporters. It is sig- 
nificant that good-will prevailed and that there was no violent 
disorder. 

The only police report carried in the papers tells of a clash 
at the Alton depot between departing Wide Awakers and a party 
of Douglas enthusiasts. During the melee some of the Douglas 
men heaved mud and stones at the Wide Awake train, but no 
one was injured. James Whalen and Richard C. Blackmore were 
charged with this offense, but later were acquitted. 

It was on his description of the night parade that The State 
Journal reporter fell down. Six miles of flaming torches and 
illuminated floats, passing through the gaily decorated and brightly 
lighted little city overtaxed his descriptive powers. Reluctantly 
he admitted that he must leave his readers to imagine what he 
could not set down on paper. In this day of electrical decorative 
effects, the torches and Chinese lanterns which illuminated Spring- 
field's homes on the night of Aug. 8, 1860, would shine but dimly 
To the star reporter of that day they were brilliant beyond com- 
parison. 



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LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 




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LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 43 



No attempt was made on the day following the meeting to 
print the speeches. There were dozens of them and for weeks 
The State Journal devoted a large portion of its space to their 
reproduction. Some of the mentioned speakers were Judge Doo- 
little, of Wisconsin ; Hon. John Wilson of Chicago, R. J. Oglesby, 
Clark E. Carr, Joseph Gillespie, Frank Blair of St. Louis, Henry 
Case, candidate for congress, Richard Yates, John M. Palmer, 
Joseph Linegar and Tom Cowan and William Kellogg. 

Governor Wood Presides 

Col. Turner King called the fair grounds meeting to order. 
Governor John Wood was the president of the day, and the list 
of vice-presidents makes a long roster of men prominent in that 
period. The opposition description of the oratory sarcastically 
dismisses it with the observation that the speakers were "remark- 
ably patriotic and threw out an indescribable amount of gas on 
the nigger question." 

Until Springfield covered itself with bunting it was in sorry 
shape for the big gathering. A heavy storm had passed over 
the city on Friday preceding the rally. It had wrecked the Re- 
publican Wigwam, the Withey carriage factory and Lamb's pork 
house. Part of the roof of the Chenery House had been carried 
away. John Rhodes' carpenter shop was ruined and John W. 
Priest's residence had been damaged. Every bricklayer in town 
had been busy re-building chimneys and every carpenter had 
been reshingling homes in the wake of the storm. The damage 
was pretty well repaired before the rally, and decorations did 
the rest. 

For the rally the weather was ideal — a clear sky and the 
high temperature dear to the hearts of circus lemonade venders. 
Altogether it was a happy occasion. Justice Francis, the "marry- 
ing squire" of Springfield, reported three weddings. They were 
those of John Smith and Lizzie Keckler of Logan county ; Wil- 
liam G. Smith and Sabrina E. Adams ; Andrew E. Nelson and 
Margaret Booth. 



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LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 45 



The Friendship between Lincoln and Douglas 

Perhaps very few persons in the present generation, having 
read the powerful debates of the two oratorical gladiators, 
Lincoln and Douglas, are aware that the warmest friendship 
existed betwen these two great political rivals, but in the Age 
of Chivalry, — for so I may call the era of their great history- 
making debates, there was a true knightly spirit that led men 
to look with pride and admiration upon a brilliant opponent, 

' 'And that stern joy which warriors feel 
In foeman worthy of their steel." 

Such was the personal feeling between these two giants, and 
it deepened from day to day into a life-long friendship, as was 
well known by their most intimate friends ; each always spoke 
of the other in terms not only of the highest respect, but almost 
of fraternal affection. 

My father, Reverend Perry Bennett was the personal friend 
of them both, and I have often heard him speak of this close 
feeling of warm friendship between Lincoln and Douglas. 

Clarence Bennett. 














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The above note was found a short time ago by J. Colby Beekman, 
secretary of Clinton Lodge No. 19, of Petersburg, 111., when remodeling 
the Masonic Temple. The circumstances connected with the note are 
at this time undetermined. 



46 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 



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LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 47 



Senator and Mrs. Stephen A. Douglas 

The editor is indebted to William Dodd Chenery for the 
photographs from which the above cuts were made for this special 
tribute of memory to the great democrat, Stephen A. Douglas. 
These cuts are made from photographic enlargements of cards 
presented by Mrs. Stephen A. Douglas to Mr. Chenery's mother, 
the late Mrs. John William Chenery in April, 1861. At that 
time Senator and Mrs. Douglas were guests in the Chenery home 
which was located at the northeast corner of Fourth and Wash- 
ington streets. Senator Douglas had been invited to deliver a 
patriotic address before the joint assembly of the Illinois senate 
and house in the state capitol building on April 25. Before her 
marriage she was Miss Adele Cutts, daughter of Hon. James 
Madison Cutts of Washington. The marriage occurred in 1856, 
three years after the death of the first Mrs. Douglas. 

Information supplied by Mr. Chenery reveals that Senator 
Douglas made application for initiation into Springfield lodge 
No. 4, A. F. & A. M., on April 21, 1840, a few days after that 
lodge received its charter from the Illinois jurisdiction. In Octo- 
ber, 1841, Douglas was elected as the first grand orator of the 
Grand lodge of Illinois. His application for Masonry, signed 
with his own hand is framed in the Masonic temple in Springfield. 
Today the ink of that signature is as black as when originally 
written. 



48 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 




LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 49 



Chenery House 

Lincoln's Last Residence in Springfield, Illinois 
Early in 1861 Abraham Lincoln rented his home in Spring- 
field, Illinois sold his furniture and removed his family to the 
Chenery House, north east corner of Fourth and Washington 
Streets, where they remained till the morning of his departure 
from Springfield for his forthcoming inauguration in Washington 

The hotel was owned and operated by William Dodd Chen- 
ery and his son, John William Chenery and being at that period 
the leading hotel of the city was the place of residence of im- 
portant people visiting the city. Capt. Grant had his first civil 
war headquarters in the hotel; Stephen A. Douglas, War Gover- 
nor and Mrs. Yates, John A. McClernand. Robert Lincoln re- 
turned from college and accompanied his parents from the hotel 
to Washington. 

On the morning of their departure Mr. Chenery assembled 
his porters to "cord" the trunks and packing boxes of the Lincoln 
family for shipment but Mr. Lincoln declined their assistance 
and with his own hands tied the ropes. He then took the hotel 
cards and upon their reverse blank sides wrote "A. Lincoln, White 
House, Washington, D. C." After writing these cards he took 
one more and upon it wrote simply "A. Lincoln" and presented 
it to Miss Fannie Chenery, the young daughter of the hotel pro- 
prietor, and that card is the most cherished possession of the 
familv at this time. 



50 LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 



A Lincoln Black Hawk Letter 

This is a photostatic copy of a photograph of a letter made 
by Edwin C. Moody of Saint Louis, Missouri, and presented by 
him to William Dodd Chenery who loaned the copy to the editor. 
Mr. Moody stated to Mr. Chenery that the original letter had 
been shown to him some time previously by Mrs. Anna C. Smith 
of Saint Louis who was desirous of selling the letter. Mr. Moody 
made a photograph of the letter, sent it to a man whom he knew 
to be a collector of Lincoln relics and obtain for Mrs. Smith a 
check for four hundred dollars for the original letter. This 
copy was made by Mr. Moody and sent to Mr. Chenerv on April 
8, 1929. 

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LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 51 



Historical Sketch Springfield Chapter 

The Charter of Springfield Chapter, Number One, Illinois 
Society Sons of the American Revolution, was issued February 
22nd, 1897, with the following charter members : Joseph Wampler 
Vance, Walter Horace Bradish, Charles Philo Kane, Walter 
Chambers Bradish, Andrew Mears Brooks, Kennedy Brooks, and 
Frank Lockwood Hatch, of whom Col. Frank Lockwood Hatch 
and Walter Chambers Bradish are still connected with our chapter. 

In the over thirty-two years of unbroken existence there has 
been a steady growth in membership, in spite of death and lapses, 
and we are striving to reach the Two Hundred Mark, as we so 
long aimed at the One Hundred goal. 

Gen. Joseph W. Vance, then Adjutant General of the State 
of Illinois, was our first President, and has been succeeded by the 
following worthy compatriots, Col. Charles F. Mills, Hon. William 
A. Northcott, Dr. H. H. Turtle, Porter Paddock, Charles S. 
Andrus, Grover C. Rockwood, James B. Searcy, Col. John M. 
Tipton, Edward C. Fitch, and Dr. Alja R. Crook. 

Our chapter placed the first Lincoln marker in our city, when 
a bronze tablet was dedicated at 109 North Fifth Street, the site 
of his first law office, when we was partner of John Todd Stuart. 
We also cooperated with the Springfield Chapter Daughters of 
the American Revolution, in placing the tablet at the south en- 
trance to the Court House, recording the names of Revolutionary 
soldiers buried in Sangamon County. Later we placed a marker 
and restored the grave of George Bryan, a companion of Daniel 
Boone in the settlement of Kentucky. We also placed a marker 
at the grave of Moses Broadwell, the only Revolutionary soldier 
buried in Oak Ridge Cemetery. 

Our Chapter with twenty members in continental uniform, 
with the Spirit of 1776, took part in the Preparedness Parade 
in 1916. 

Our members who were veterans of the Spanish American 
and World Wars, have been presented with medals of the So- 
ciety, with their names engraved thereon. 

We celebrate annually the anniversaries of Washington's 
Birthday, Lexington Day, Flag Day, Constitution Day, and York- 
town Day. 

We have taken some interest in Washington College, the first 
institution of learning established west of the Alleganies in 1780, 



52 LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 

that is doing such a noble work for the descendents of those 
worthy patriots, who won the battle of Kings Mountain and other 
engagements. 

We will soon present sixteen Good Citizenship medals to the 
eighth grade graduates in our public schools, and expect to con- 
tinue this work to both the February and June graduates, doubling 
the number hereafter, thus instilling the highest spirit of good citi- 
zenship and patriotism, in the coming generations, while honoring 
the memories of those who made it possible to enjoy the blessings 
of freedom and opportunity from our worthy Revolutionary an- 
cestors. 



Any student of archeology will be interested to know that 
Compatriot Edward W. Payne, has the largest private collec- 
tion of relics of prehistoric stone age in this country, if not 
in the world and he will be pleased to exhibit some of them 
to visiting compatriots. 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 53 



Springfield Chapter Daughters of the American 
Revolution 

The National Society Daughters of the American Revolution 
was organized October 11, 1890. The first Continental Congress 
of the Daughters was in 1892. Just two years later, June 14. 
1894, Springfield chapter held its first meeting at the home of 
Mrs. Charles V. Hickox, on South Sixth Street, the site of the 
present Elks' Club. On February 11, 1895, the chapter was for- 
mally organized with twenty-five charter members. The first 
meetings were held on historical anniversaries, at the home of 
Mrs. Hickox, later the monthly plan of meeting was adopted. 
The chapter has always loyally aided the local, state and national 
D. A. R. projects : in the Spanish American War days a concert 
was given to raise money for local Troop D ; in 1909 the chapter 
took an active part in the celebration of the centennial of Lincoln's 
birth ; in 1900 the first prize money was given to encourage the 
study of United States history in the public schools and since, 
prizes have been given twice annually ; in Springfield, the chapter 
has marked the site of Lincoln's farewell address ; the first school ; 
first court house ; first church ; the Grant tree ; and cooperated 
with the State Historical Society and other patriotic citizens in 
placing bronze tablets in thirteen locations connected with Lin- 
coln's life in Springfield. Thru its thirty-five years the chapter 
has grown and prospered and now has three hundred fourteen 
members. It is interesting to note that the meetings are now held 
in the Elks' Club, the site of the chapter's birth, on the third 
Thursdav of each month. 



54 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 



m 


wM PS^P^t 111 




1 













GENERAL GRANT. 
This unusual photograph of Gen. Grant was recently found among 



papers of the Civil War period preserved by the late Mrs. 
Chenery, of Springfield, Illinois. 



John W. 



LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 55 



AUTOGRAPHS 



56 LINCOLN AND SPRINGFIELD 



AUTOGRAPHS 



V